Testicular cancer is cancer of the testicle. It is often detected by patient noticing a lump or some swelling in the testicle.
Symptoms of testicular cancer include a lump or swelling in the testicle, pain and discomfort in the testicle, swollen testicle, backaches or aches in groin area and fluid collection in the scrotum.
Testicular cancer is diagnosed with an ultrasound of the testicles.
Treatment will depend on the stage of cancer, the type of cancer, the side effects, patient’s preferences and overall health. Treatments include: Active surveillance (after removing the testicle with cancer), Chemotherapy (the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells), Radiation therapy (use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells) and Surgery.
- RADICAL INGUINAL ORCHIECTOMY
Surgery involves the removal of the testicle with cancer. This surgery is called radical inguinal orchiectomy. An incision is made just above the pubic area and the testicle is then gently removed from the scrotum through the opening. The tumour is removed entirely along with the testicle and spermatic cord.
- RETROPERITONEAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION (RPLND)
Depending on the stage and type of cancer, lymph nodes around the large blood vessels (the aorta and inferior vena cava) at the back of the abdomen may be removed during the orchiectomy. Not all people with testicular cancer will need to have lymph nodes removed. A large incision is made in middle of the abdomen to remove the lymph nodes.
Varicocele is the abnormal enlargement of the veins within the loose bag of skin that holds your testicles (scrotum). This is a condition that commonly causes low sperm production and decreased sperm quality resulting in infertility. Varicoceles can cause testicles to develop abnormally or shrink in size.
Symptoms of varicocele include a dull ache or sharp pain and imparied fertility.
A physical examination with an ultrasound of the testicle is often used to diagnose varicocele.
Most of the time, varicocele does not need treatment. Fertility is often not affected. However, if pain and discomfort is affecting the patient, a surgery can be done to repair the varicocele. Surgery will seal off the affected vein to redirect the blood flow into normal veins. This can be done laparoscopically where a small incision is made in the abdomen and the surgeon passes a tiny instrument through the incision to see and repair the varicocele.
Epididymitis is the inflammation of the epididymis. The epididymis is a tube located at the back of the testicles that stores and carries sperm. Inflammation can cause swelling and pain in the testicles. It can affect men of all ages but common among men between 14 to 35. Orchitis is the inflammation of the testicles caused by bacteria or virus. Both testicles may be affected by orchitis at the same time but symptoms usually appear in one of the testicles. This type of testicular inflammation is often caused by the mumps virus.
Symptoms of epididymitis and orchitis include a red and swollen scrotum, testicle pain and tenderness, painful urination, frequency in urination, penile discharge, blood in semen and pain or discomfort in the pelvic area. For orchitis, fever, nausea and vomiting may develop as well.
A physical examination with an ultrasound of the testicle is often used to diagnose epididymitis and orchitis.
Treatments for epididymitis and orchitis include Medications which is usually antibiotics and pain medication.
Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
Erectile Dysfunction is the inability to get or maintain an erection to have sexual intercourse. It is also referred to as impotence.
Symptoms of erectile dysfunction include not being able to get an erection, struggling to maintain an erection for sexual intercourse and an inability to ejaculate.
The doctor will perform a physical examination of the penis and a psychological examination. Blood tests and urine tests may be ordered to exclude other conditions. An ultrasound may be performed to check the blood vessels that supply the penis.
Treatments for erectile dysfunction include Medications such as Viagra, Cialis, Levitra and Stendra, Testosterone replacement via injection, Shockwave therapy and Surgery.
- SHOCKWAVE THERAPY
Shockwave therapy, also called low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) is a treatment which consists of noninvasive low-intensity sound waves that pass through erectile tissue thereby restoring erectile function by clearing plaque out of blood vessels and stimulating the growth of new blood vessels.
- PENIS PUMPS
Surgery is considered if other treatments have failed. A penis pump is a hollow tube with a hand-powered or battery-powered pump. The tube is placed over the penis and the pump is used to suck out the air inside the tube. This creates a vacuum pulling blood into the penis. Once there is an erection, a tension ring should slip around the base of the penis to hold in the blood keeping the penis firm. The vacuum device is then removed. The erection usually lasts long enough for sexual intercourse.
- PENILE IMPLANTS
This procedure involves surgically placing devices on both sides of the penis. The implants consist of either inflatable or malleable rods. Penile implants are not normally recommended unless other methods have failed.
Male infertility is a condition in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant. It can be due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. Health issues, injuries, illnesses, lifestyle and other factors can affect male fertility.
The main sign of male infertility is the inability to conceive. Symptoms associated with male infertility include problems with sexual function, pain or swelling in the testicle area and having a lower than normal sperm count.
The doctor may order a couple of tests including a semen analysis, hormone testing and post-ejaculation urinalysis. A scrotal ultrasound may also be required to see if there are other medical conditions such as varicocele or other problems in the testicles and supporting structures.
Treatment will depend on the cause of infertility. It includes Surgery (if varicocele is identified and causing the condition), Medications such as antibiotics for infections, other types of oral medications depending on cause and Hormone treatments.
Premature ejaculation happens when a man experiences orgasm and expels semen shortly after sexual activity and with minimal stimulation of the penis.
The main symptom of premature ejaculation is the inability to hold back ejaculation for more than one minute after penetration.
The doctor will ask you about your sex life and medical history. A physical examination may be done by the doctor as well in order to diagnose premature ejaculation.
Treatments for premature ejaculation include Behavioural techniques such as masturbating an hour or 2 before intercourse to delay ejaculation during sex and Medications to delay orgasm.
Vasectomy is a procedure which involves the cutting off of small tubes in the scrotum that carry sperm. It is also known as male sterilisation. A vasectomy blocks or cuts each vas deferens (two tubes through which the sperm leaves the testicles) keeping sperm out of the semen. Sperm cells remain in the testicles and are absorbed by the body. About 3 months after a vasectomy, the semen will not contain any sperm. However, patient will still have the same amount of semen as previously. There just will not be sperm in it.
Vasectomies are permanent and there are risks involved such an infection, pain and swelling. A reversal surgery is complicated and expensive, also they do not always work. Please discuss with the doctor your concerns before the procedure.